MMT 3 Assignment 3 Assessment Criteria

The assessment criteria listed below are central to the assessment process for this course, so if you’re going to have your work assessed to gain formal credits, please make sure you take note of these criteria and consider how each of the assignments you complete demonstrates evidence of each criterion. On completion of each assignment, and before you send your assignment to your tutor, test yourself against the criteria; in other words, do a self-assessment and see how you think you would do. Note down your findings for each assignment you’ve completed in your learning log, noting all your perceived strengths and weaknesses, taking into account the criteria every step of the way. This will be helpful for your tutor to see, as well as helping you prepare for assessment.
  • Demonstration of technical and visual skills– materials, techniques, observational skills,visual awareness, design and compositional skill
  • In this assignment I have used materials and creative manipulation methods that were entirely new to me. Working with moulding materials like latex and plaster of Paris was a real revelation.
  • Initially I thought the plaster of Paris samples were not as dramatic or diverse as the surface textured samples. Thinking how to get different results from the plaster was a bit of a technical challenge as I had no idea how any of them were going to turn out.
  • I had to really look at each plaster sample and draw out their most interesting qualities, this was helped by photographing and drawings them.
  •  I was excited about the latex challenge and was fired up to use my compositional and planning skills to enhance them as best as I could.
  • Quality of outcome– content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, discernment, conceptualisation of thoughts, communication of ideas
  • Researching  the origins and contents of different modelling materials was initially really daunting and I didn’t quite get it for a few hours, however I did learn how to produce and paint them. I like the idea of working directly with shapes and patterns from found and natural objects by pressing into soft materials that record marks and textures directly and seeing how these marks can inspire ideas for creating something new.
  • Bringing together two very different materials and linking them with a third creating an abstract idea is very exciting. Textiles by their nature have a vast textural and visual spectrum and incorporating a material which is not considered to be a textile has enabled me to photograph, draw and think about new concepts.
  • These sketched and photographed samples will be  presented in a clear and professional manner for my tutors appraisal and for formal assessment.
  • Demonstration of creativity– imagination, experimentation, invention, development of a personal voice 
  • Before starting this assignment I was anxious as to how I was going to be able to work with these brand new practises and methods, however being forced to go outside of my comfort zone has liberated me and taught me to accept what didn’t work and on reflection I have found that I have learnt from the failures. I have reflected on successful methods and practices from previous sampling and further developed them, creating interesting constructions, for example using rivets, staples and intense webbing.
  • Context–reflection, research, critical thinking 
  • For this assignment I have looked at YouTube tutorials and researched artists, sculptors and designers that use modelling materials in their practises. By observing the finished work of these artists I have learnt how to work with lots of brand new materials and practices. I continue to sketch, plan and make colour notes to reflect on my work thinking about how best to develop samples and also making observations in my learning log on areas that were not as successful.

MMT Part 3. Stage 4 sorting

Use the sorting stage to go through your samples, reviewing and comparing their attributes. Pick out samples that strike you as interesting; this could be due to their appearance or something in the methods used to make them.

IMG_4206.JPGMMT 3 project 1 sample 2
Media – fossil – plasticine

This is one of the test samples at the beginning of MMT 3 project 1. The plasticine has recorded some intricate repeated organic forms. Although the tiny designs have a repeated format each one is slightly different. This sample could be used to create some interesting drawings leading on to some textured and stitched developed samples. This sample has given me some ideas to source similar repeated organic natural surfaces to work with. I am going to keep the plasticine and use it for picking up similar patterns.IMG_4282.JPGMMT 3 project 1 developed sample 4
Media – air drying clay, acrylic paint, pva glue, synthetic lace, rayon thread

I really enjoyed creating this sample, drawing inspiration from the work of Andy Goldsworthy who sorts and collates natural materials into colours for his outdoor installations. By sketching out the design in colour first I saw the potential for painting the veins on the surface of the clay a bright and bold colour. This dramatic surface supports the heavily worked top layer with dense webbing of shiny yarn completely covering certain areas underneath.
I have connected the two levels together by using the complex structure of the variegated coloured lace around the edge of the sample. In Project 1 writing about this sample I have made a note in the blog that on reflection I could have incorporated red yarn into the veins on the lower layer which would have given a more depth and surface interest.

IMG_4277.JPGMMT 3 project 1 developed sample 7
Media – latex, acrylic paint, coloured voile, brass rivets, embroidery thread

 The image above conjures up lots of ideas for me on how diverse materials can be incorporated together to make a developed sample.
The two materials making up this sample, latex and a fine open weave are so very diverse and give a real sense of dimension and depth.
The latex is solid, flexible and very strong and consists of bold flat colours of coral, and two tones of yellow green. The latex has picked up the rough textured surface of the wooden pegs adding to the complexity of the sample. The upper layer reveals so much of the layer beneath  due to its fine translucent open weave structure, and some of the areas have been removed completely exposing the lower level. The edges of the material is also frayed revealing abstract shapes and bold colours throwing delicate shadows of the threads in the sunlight.
There seems to be good balance between the two layers and the brass studs joining the two substrates link them together well. The gold of the brass studs bringing in a third colour completing the colour spectrum.

IMG_4354.JPGMMT 3 project 2 sample 13
Media – plaster of Paris, blue clear plastic

I can see potential for further development with this moulded sample.
This interesting outcome (happy accident) of clear blue plastic entrapped within plaster of Paris could be developed further by cutting and shaping the plastic, stitching into and wrapping it around the plaster. The irregularities  and the repeated triangular marks could be exaggerated by drilling into and/or painted.

MMT part 3 Stage 3 Recording outcomes

Stage 3 Recording outcomes
Was it as you expected ?
I didn’t know what to expect but I was not looking forward to this assignment as I felt really out of my comfort zone with 3D and construction. I believe this to be because I am essentially more interested in 2D experimental work so I am entirely unfamiliar with these processes. I have worked with clay in the past but that was learning to throw pots on an electric wheel.
Were you more comfortable using a particular casting material ?
The reason I used plasticine at the start of the first project was I wanted to ease myself into this assignment and I knew plasticine would be an easy medium to use having had some memory of using it as a child.
The air-drying clay was fun to use, that was probably because I knew I could focus on following the brief and not worry about whether the clay would be correct as it was pre-mixed.
Did you discover something new ?
I have learnt so much during the whole assignment, especially from the things that didn’t turn out as I expected. For example, if I were to make papier-mâché pulp again I am confident I could get the right mix next time, also now having worked with plaster of Paris I would understand the importance of creating pressure to make indentations and i would have more confidence in the material and therefore be more experimental.
So much of the creative process was out of my control so that it challenged me to adapt and work within those parameters.
So for example in Part 1 the samples that I had anticipated would be a success did not produce the expected results so I had to work with these accidental outcomes and then think and plan how I could work with the resulting shapes and textures.
I learnt much about plaster of Paris, how the material can differ in texture and even colour, how it can turn out chalky and porous in one sample and have a silky sheen in another depending on the the mould and the forces applied.
Has it led to further sample-making ?
This is not an area that particularly excites me, and I had worked slowly with the materials I was so unsure of – so I have not gone on to create more samples.
However I may return to working with moulding and casting for my final collection, depending on how the rest of my work develops.
What are the qualities and characteristics of the samples you’ve made ?
The two different projects have highlighted very different qualities and characteristics. The diverse materials in Project one because they were thinner in depth had more potential for me to focus on surface textures which is of more interest to me. As a result Project 1 samples had much more experimentation with pattern (some graphic, some organic) and even colour. The 3D plaster samples had much less surface pattern to play with but were great to draw as their forms and textures created some good shadows and lines for sketching.

MMT Part 3. Project 2 Casting the internal space of a vessel

For this project make about  six samples. Start by thinking how you’ll go about tying and wrapping and which found objects you’ll use to press into the sample surface so that you’re well prepared while the casting material is still fluid. Use what you learnt during part Two and your research into other artists and makers to guide your design decisions.
photographed sample 9 initial stages
media – balloon, moulded swimming cap, garden twine, plaster of Paris
MMT 3 project 2 sample 9
sketch of MMT 3 project 2 sample 9
Media – brown coloured pencil, smooth cartridge paper
After preparing the plaster of Paris I poured it through a funnel into an ordinary balloon. I expected the ballon to expand as it would if it were being filled with air. When the balloon was filled with the plaster it would not expanding much beyond its original size and it just backed up into the funnel, so I tied a knot in the balloon then wrapped it with a section of a rubber moulded swimming cap & secured that with twine. After a very short time (about an hour) the cast felt really hard but I left it a few days before I resumed the experiment. I expected the moulded rubber would make more of an impression onto the plaster, but the moulded latex was not under sufficient pressure to penetrate the ballon material and imprint the pattern from the cap. There are some small indentations however. On reflection I think I would have clearer surface patterns if I poured the plaster straight into the swim cap and secured it.
Studying the surface again – the area of interest lies where I have tied the balloon at the top. This section of the cast has created some gathered creases. The clay is very white and seems to quite porous and is matt in appearance.
When drawing the sample I focused on describing the indentations of the plaster with block silhouette shapes.
photographed sample 10 initial stages
media – larger ribbed balloon, textured brown paper, garden wire, thick plastic tape, elastic band, yarn & plaster of Paris
MMT 3 project 2 sample 10
sketch of MMT 3 project 2 sample 10
media – scrap wallpapers and staples
I succeeded in getting much more plaster into this balloon because it expanded. Again I used a funnel to pour in the liquid plaster. Once I felt there was enough in it I tied a knot then wrapped textured paper securely around it. I then wrapped wire around the middle as tightly as I could  and screwed the ends together. Finally I tied thick plastic tape around the ballon (to apply more pressure) and hung it on a hook from the ceiling to cure. I left it for 5 days but on opening it it still felt damp.
The shape is rather organic with evenly spaced straight lines running along its length (from the seams of the balloon). One side is very smooth and another is quite dimpled. I notice there is also a cavity where the wire was screwed together and where the wire was wrapped it left a creased uneven line pulling in the plaster. The cast still feels damp and is a beige colour. This smooth rounded shape with regular unbroken lines reminds me of the work of the Rachel Whiteread caste of a hot water bottle. It has taken its own meaning which is not representative of a balloon any more.
The ballon had a small ring around the top to tie string around, that cavity had also filled with plaster but broke off when I released the plaster from the balloon mould. These squared off double nodules have a marbled surface area which brings an interesting element to the sample. The collage sketch emphasises the irregular organic shape of this cast.
photographed sample 11 initial stages
media – latex glove, plastic tweezers, garden wire, fimo beads, plastic netting, ribbon, rubber band, plaster of Paris
MMT 3 project 2 sample 11
sketch of MMT 3 project 2 sample 11
media – smooth cartridge paper, fine point gel pen, chunky wax crayon
Once I had filled the glove with plaster and tied it with a knot I then wrapped the beads around the top section of the hand and around one finger. I then wrapped the wire & netting around the hand shape and clipped a finger with the tweezers. Finally I hung the sample from a large hook with an elastic band. This was left to cure for a couple of weeks. As I carefully unwrapped the wire, netting and beads and finally peeled away the glove, sections of the sample started to break up. What was left was a rather interesting shape with a few different areas of interest. One section where a digit has fallen off has left a textured rough marbled surface and the tweezer clamp has left a flattened area on the longer remaining digit. The section at the bottom is full of tight vertical creases and the plaster has bulked up against the the longer digit. The plaster has a blue milky appearance and feels cool and smooth.
Despite half of the plaster falling off during the unveiling process I am pleased with the overall result as I can see lots of interesting shapes, some tension and two opposing surface textures. Drawing the sample has highlighted the two different surface textures.
photographed sample 12 initial stages
media – double thickness freezer bags, freezer clip, 3 plastic football spikes, thick cord, 2 polystyrene trays & 2 tin cans, plaster of Paris
MMT 3 project 2 sample 12
sketch of MMT 3 project 2 sample 12
media – smooth cartridge paper, HB pencil, felt tips
Initially I laid 3 plastic football spikes and a piece of thick cord onto a polystyrene tray. I then poured some plaster of Paris into a double thickness freezer bag and let that relax down into the bag and I then secured it with a food clip. I laid the plaster filled bag onto the rope and spike tray then rested another polystyrene tray on the top of the plaster and weighed it down with two tin cans. I let it cure for 4 days.
Both sides look very different. The top section of the sample where the food clip was secured has created deep angled creases and folds and two flattened areas at either end. The clip has caused a deep ravine in the centre and two holes where the plaster was thin at the bottom of the bag.
The bottom section of the sample (under greater pressure) has shown some shallow undulations. There are fine straight creases recorded from the freezer bag join as well as softer folds and wriggly creases and this side seems a lot softer in character. The colour of the clay is a creamy grey and is very smooth, it felt slimey to touch when I initially removed it from the bag but after it dried off completely it was very silky and pleasing to touch and it’s surface also has a sheen to it.
I captured the way the plaster has folded and layered in my quick sketch.
photographed sample 13 initial stages
media – freezer bag, two pencils, wooden stick, garden twine, plastic food container, plaster of Paris
MMT 3 project 2 sample 13
sketch of MMT 3 project 2 sample 13
media – watercolour paper, HB pencil & watercolours
With this experiment I filled a freezer bag with the plaster and secured it with string. Then I lightly pushed the bag onto 2 pencils and a stick which I had placed at angles within a plastic pot.
This was left to cure for 5 days. When I peeled the bag away from the plaster some sections broke off and part of the blue plastic bag has been subsumed into the plaster. I have left it in there because releasing it would have broken up the cast but also I am rather pleased with the effect of one material taking in another. The thin clear blue plastic emerging from the rather cumbersome shaped clay throws up some interesting ideas as they are very different in form and texture. Both ends of the sample balance well on the table.
 On either side of the edge line of the freezer bag the plaster has formed regularly spaced dart shapes from the tiny folds where that area has relaxed slightly into the bag.
This has been highlighted in my watercolour sketch.
The pencils and stick have also created regular smooth concave curves and a ridge. There are a few air bubbles on the surface. The plaster feels damp and has a grey hue.
photographed sample 14 initial stages
media – balloon, lower section of an egg shaped tin, beaded fabric, string, plaster of Paris
IMG_4361.JPGMMT 3 project 2 sample 14
sketch of MMT 3 project 2 sample 14
media – scrap paper, wallpaper, HB pencil, fine liner and sharpie pen
Once more I filled the balloon with plaster until it started to back up into the funnel. I managed to fill the little ring at the top of the balloon with plaster also, then I tied the balloon up, wrapped beaded fabric around it and then placed it into a lower section of an egg shaped tin.
This was left to cure for a couple of weeks then I tried to remove the balloon from the cast really carefully but the plaster was so soft in the top of the ring section that it broke away.
The plaster has taken on the ridged areas of the balloon and the gathered area where it was tied at the bottom. To me there is no evidence the beaded fabric has made any sort of impression on the plaster except perhaps for a small area at the base of the sample (see left of top photograph). Also I was anticipating more of an egg shape as I was hoping the liquid plaster filled balloon would be accommodated into the egg shaped tin. However the ballon itself has produced a very organic, almost vegetable shape with ridged segmentation and a couple of areas of strong surface interest where stippled and wriggly lines appear in the plaster.
These marks remind me of seeing a scull once on a coffee table with similar marks caused by syphilis. (see bottom photograph) so thinking about how to sketch the sample I incorporated the wriggles and dots from the cast onto my collage.
This sample is also reminiscent of Rachel Whiteread’s  work because the surface texture of much of her work is smooth with flat or rounded areas, concentrating on form and space rather than heavy surface texture.

MMT Part 3. Project 1 Molding from a surface

The aim here is to use the casting materials to capture the texture of other materials.
The characteristics of the casting material and the surface you use will influence the way you go about casting.
food  tray    brooch     fossil     beads     lettuce     clothes pegs     coaster
shoe spikes
Kale leaf that’s been ravaged by insects
I have chosen a food tray, brooch, fossil, insect ravaged kale leaf, faceted beads, broken wooden pegs, a coaster and shoe spikes as my textured surfaces to mould onto. I have decided to use the following moulding materials to experiment with: plasticine, air drying clay,  papier-mâché and latex.
I matched up the different objects to certain moulding materials thinking about how best I could achieve the best results not having ever used these before, except plasticine from my school days.
Some objects were contained within vessels depending on the liquidity of the moulding material or as a means to contain separate small components.
Other objects were impressed into more robust modelling materials and then pulled away from the surface.
Faceted string of beads made of  hard plastic – with plasticine
MMT 3 project 1 sample 1
This material was tougher to manipulate than I expected from childhood memories.
I placed the beads in a shallow container before pushing the softened plasticine on top. The material had some resist when I pulled it away from the beads. Looking up close you can see the faceted surfaces of the beads. A hole has appeared in the top right corner where the plasticine was too thin. Although the areas where the beads have made an impression are quite interesting, the look of this sample looks crude. If I had circled the beads onto a similar shape as the sample below the overall effect would have been visually more pleasing.
Fossil – plasticine
MMT 3 project 1 sample 2
Once the plasticine was warmed up by my hands and a bit more malleable I rolled it into a ball, then pushed it down to make a flat medallion shape. Then I pressed the fossil into the plasticine using quite a lot of pressure. It was relatively easy to separate the two materials. The plasticine has picked up the delicate details of the walled compartments of the fossil but has also taken up some of the loose material or perhaps grains of sand into itself.
Brooch made with a base metal and glass & bubble wrap – air drying clay
MMT 3 project 1 sample 3
Reflecting on the crudity of the first sample at the dead areas and looking at
Louise Nevelson’s and Eduardo Paolozzi’s work again I realised that the whole area of the moulding surface if its very smooth needs to be impressed with shapes and surface texture to give the sample balance and some visual interest. I felt the brooch impression on its own in the clay would look incomplete so with this sample as well as impressing the brooch into the clay I also added bubble wrap.
I am pleased with the result as it looks more developed than sample 1. The air drying clay is a lot softer than the plasticine and seems to have picked up just as much detail as sample 2.
Kale leaf ravaged by insects – organic plant form which naturally degrades down – air drying clay
MMT 3 project 1 sample 4
Originally I was going to use a lettuce leaf for this sample but I came across an insect ravaged kale leaf in the garden so choose this instead. I rolled out the clay to about 4mm thickness then I pressed the leaf on top. When I pulled the leaf away from the clay a hole developed at the left hand edge of the sample which I can use in the next stage if I choose to develop this sample further. The clay has taken some of the leaf and other small residue which adds some surface interest. The areas of leaf that are missing have not been picked up as clearly as I would have hoped but the different depths of the lines from deep ridges going right down to the faintest of lines have been impressed onto the clay.
Food tray made of a thin layer of plastic – papier-mâché pulp
MMT 3 project 1 sample 5
I decided to make a Papier Mache pulp rather than the layering method of making a skin. The reason for making a pulp was because I have chosen deep receptacles to mould into and I wanted some volume to the sample. I looked at lots of YouTube videos, most of them showing how to layer strips of paper onto balloons. So in the end I just forged ahead, tearing white cartridge paper, soaking it over night and then kneading it till it looked like porridge. Then I added a paste to the paper pulp made up from scola cell and water. I smeared Vaseline all over the food tray to act as a releasing agent then added the papier-mâché. I left this to cure overnight, except it took a week to cure and the layer was so thin it broke up when I released it from the mould. So all in all a complete disaster.
I think the water content in my paste was too high, in other words the glue wasn’t strong enough also if I had used newspaper or a thinner paper the structure of the paper would have been softer and therefore easier to break down.
Shoe spikes made of hard plastic – papier-mâché pulp
MMT 3 project 1 sample 6
As with the food tray sample I smeared the container and spikes with Vaseline then coaxed the papier-mâché into all the crevices in the container and left it to cure. This sample took about ten days in all to cure and even then I had to coax it out of the mould to speed up the drying process. This pulped papier-mâché is surprisingly tough. The surface texture is bobbly and rough and rather beautiful. I may go on to further develop this sample but I will see how the latex samples turn out before I decide.
clothes peg components made of wood – latex
MMT 3 project 1 sample 7
This latex cast was much tougher to separate from its wooden mould. Initially I was worried it was going to tear or split but it was very strong and stretched a fair bit so I could pull the wooden components away relatively easily. The latex has picked up the surface texture of the wood and shapes very well. It’s has taken on an industrial or basket weave look and I am encouraged to develop this sample.
Drinks coaster made of pewter – latex
MMT 3 project 1 sample 8
This cast took a couple of days to make, I painted on ten layers of latex and then left it a further couple of days to cure. It was very easy to remove from the pewter surface.
The latex has a rather unpleasant organic smell which I can’t quite put my finger on.
I purposely chose the coaster because a section of it’s surface was damaged and I was curious to see how the latex would pick up the flaw as well as the clean geometric design.
I am very pleased with the result so I will developers this sample further.
Once you’ve made about six samples and recorded your results, start to think about how or if you can use any of the techniques from Parts One & Two to embellish or manipulate your samples. If you’ve made a papier-mâché surface , for example you can puncture it to create holes that you can use for stitching, Joining or to draw through another material ? Collect these ideas as drawings with explanatory notes in your learning log. Decide on 2 or 3 ideas to develop, creating a new subgroup of samples.
                                                         Developed samples
MMT 3 project 1 sample 4
Referencing back to project 2 I want to carry across the bold colours that Andy Goldsworthy works with many of his outside installations. My plan is to paint the main ground of the air dried clay green and fill the veins in with bright red.
MMT 3 project 1 ideas to develop sample 4
MMT 3 project 1 developed sample 4
Media – air drying clay, acrylic paint, pva glue, synthetic lace, rayon thread
sketch of MMT 3 project 1 developed sample 4
media – watercolour paper, HB pencil, watercolours, metallic coloured pencils
In MMT 2 part 2 exercise 2 wrapping with materials and threads many of my samples were joined with long strands of yarn or wrapped with fabric and yarn so I pursued that idea for this sample. I had found a synthetic lace material which as well as being a complex design was also translucent so would be sympathetic to the leaf pattern.
Testing a series of green and red acrylic paints I choose the best colours to match the lace. I then painted the front of the sample and used a variegated rayon thread in ivory, lilac, pink and mauve and attached the lace around the outer edge of the clay sample using a long joining stitch.
In part 2 MMT I expressed a desire to revisit the process of creating a webbed effect so this experiment has given me the opportunity to do so. I sense a slow process of enclosure around the shape. The wrapping is very like some of Judith Scott’s work that I have made reference to in my research in the last assignment. On reflection I wished I had filled in some of the ridges in the clay with red yarn, which I had planned to do originally.
I enjoyed sketching this sample as I think the complexity of mark making is quite effective with the block shapes that have been broken up by the fine lines of the thread. I have managed to achieve quite a good tonal range and I can see tension in certain areas.
MMT 3 project 1 sample 7
I am pleased with the outcome of this latex caste. The textural appearance is bold and I can incorporate the flange around the caste into the overall design.
Green Jay         From
Idea for colours for this sample
MMT 3 project 1 ideas to develop sample 7
MMT 3 project 1 developed sample 7
Media – latex, acrylic paint, coloured voile, brass rivets, embroidery thread
sketch of MMT 3 project 1 developed sample 7
media – coloured pencils, HB pencil, felt tips, smooth heavyweight paper
Looking at the original latex caste I felt that the sample would look good if I introduced some really strong colours. I found a photograph on Pinterest that had a bold colour spectrum so I have used it as a guide (see above).
The Rebecca Fairley “Fabric and Matter” exhibit I referred to in my initial research for this project had some great ideas as far as introducing unusual combinations of diverse surface textures, shapes and colours.
With my sample I have painted it bold colours to try to exaggerate the different levels or depths of the surface. I found a scrap of coloured voile which I attached to the latex by piercing with brass rivets and stitching through with orange and red embroidery thread. The rivets were really tricky to pierce into the latex, it was easier to stitch into the latex but still took a bit of perseverance.
The latex for me was a material that I initially thought was slightly unpleasant to the touch as it was rubbery and sticky but when I started working into it with other materials I could start to see its potential as an exciting and versatile material.
Sketching the sample highlights the irregular edge line, different layers of materials and the line of the weave.
Eduardo Paolozzi
Study for Cleish ceiling 1973
This image above full of different shapes, some flowing and organic, some rigid and geometric. The shapes fit neatly together unified by the surface material, colour and repetition. I am really taken with this idea of repetitive collage so with this next sample I will work with different textures and materials together to create something similar.
MMT 3 project 1 sample 8
MMT 3 project 1 ideas to develop sample 8
MMT 3 project 1 developed sample 8
media – painted latex, leatherette fabric, metallic, black and grey thread, staples, silvered berries from a Xmas cracker, silver foil, plastic forks and a metal knitting needle gauge
sketch of MMT 3 project 1 developed sample 8
Media- smooth cartridge paper, HB pencil, fine line pen  and black sharpie pen
The Art Deco industrial look of the pattern on the latex sample encouraged me to look at Eduardo Paolozzi and Louise Nevelson to get some ideas for inspiration.  The colour palette for this sample is limited to metallics, grey and black.
My initial idea was bought about by thinking back to an exercise in Assignment 2 overlapping edges. I wanted to sew and staple the latex edge onto a metallic leatherette material in order to draw attention to its edge line. Then couch and sew on foil and silver berries, plastic forks and an old knitting needle gauge to create a industrial / domestic impression.
Sewing onto the leatherette and through the latex material was awkward and fiddly and rather than achieving an interesting edge line it looks to me a bit clumsy. The smooth latex shows up every tiny mark and puncture site again proving my point that bare areas on a smooth surface of a modelled material can look awful if not executed well. There is a brutality to the marks however which is quite interesting.
The fabric on the outer edge buckled in one corner after attempting to splice the latex neatly into the leatherette frame. I stapled around the inner edge between the fabric and latex to secure the edge line some more. Finally I couched on the foil, forks and knitting gauge and strung the silver berries around the ring pull of the soft metal coffee lid.
I drew the sample in a continuous line, looking at the paper from time to time to remind myself of all of the elements that have been included. The irregular shapes with repetition here and there have produced some interesting shapes.
What really impressed me with the latex on this sample is it managed to pick up a tiny serial number 19072 onto the flange, which must of been a small serial number on the plastic food receptical that I used to contain the latex sample during development.

MMT Part 3. Moulding and casting research folder

Research Folder 
Start by doing a number of research activities; these will equip you with the knowledge to carry out your sample  making and inspire the direction of your creativity. First, read around the subject of casting, to learn about the materials available and how they’re used. Search for online tutorials and relevant information on how to use a range of casting materials.
different types of moulds 
single part mould – these are used for smaller projects materials. These are made of a flexible material to allow the cast to be removed easily.
split mould – this mould is very like a single part mould but it allows for more complexity. The mould can be stretched and split opened to extract difficult shapes.
skin mould – this is one of the most complex mould making methods used for larger projects such as statues. A skin mould needs to be supported by a tough outer jacket. This outer layer holds the form and stops it distorting from the weight of the form.
plug section mould – this is made in two sections to support the inside and outside of a cast for example a vessel like a cup or glass. These a good for capturing thin or delicate shapes and fine surface detail on the inside or outside of an object.
multi part mould – A tough or versatile material can be used to make these moulds.
These are used for complex shapes that curve into multiple plains of space for example a tree or antlers.
casting materials
Plasticine – is a brand of modelling material which is non drying and non setting. It is made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids and does not contain water. This material is non toxic and pre – made. It moulds easily once warmed up by manipulating it by the warmth of your hands. This material is very popular with animators (including Aardman animators) and because of its versatility can be made into a wide range of models. Plasticine never fully hardens but it is firm enough to retain its shape indefinitely and should last for several years before it becomes brittle. Information sourced from Wikipedia and
Self hardening white clay – self hardening modelling clay. This material is pre-made and comes in an airtight wrapper. It is becomes solid when exposed to the air. Drying time approx 24 hours. Store in an air tight container. Cover with a damp cloth whilst working if it’s hot.
Papier-mâché – this material is easy to make at home and does not cost much in materials. The materials are usually newspaper or fine scrap paper, flour and water or glue and water. This material can be very tough. It can be made into a pulp if you want a structure with volume or it can be layered using strips of paper and alternate layers of glue. Three layered are probably needed to get a strong structure, but also it can be fine enough to be worked into. Salt is added sometimes to prevent the material becoming mouldy. A release agent is needed like Vaseline or washing up liquid.
Latex – This is a natural product extracted from the rubber tree to produce a gum.
When the liquid latex comes in contact with air it emulsifies to form a rubbery skin that retains its shape and texture. The outside temperature will effect the drying time.
Starts as a liquid which can be layered on with a roller, brushed on or dipped to slowly build up layers. It is very versatile and has stretch and can become extreme strong. This material can be painted and stitched into.
Plaster – is a naturally mined gypsum and is very good for decorative plaster work picking out fine detail and definition. It is off white in colour and a small amount of it goes a long way.
It comes in powder form and is mixed with clean water. The two should be mixed together carefully in order to not allow air into the mixture. When pouring it it must go into a dry mould.
Concrete – is a basic mix of four ingredients, three from the Earth and one from the sky.
These ingredients are – sand, gravel, cement and water. Cement is usually made up from mined Portland stone that is crushed into powder form. The materials are basically cheap but putting them together with the correct quantity of water creates a strong versatile material which literally creates the building blocks for our modern society. What is crucial is the getting the right quantity of water into the mix.
Basically the higher the water content, the weaker the material.
the concrete room in the Barbican
On Sunday the 21st October I went on a guided tour of the Barbican Centre which is very near the city in London.
This tour was for approx and hour and half. We were told about how the three designers
(originally from Kingston Polytechnic) were commissioned to take on the project of this 53 acre site worked together. How their former knowledge influenced and inspired them and how they imagined and planned how people would want to live and move around in this concrete urban space. The tour ended with a trip into the concrete room which is behind the Curve Gallery where many different samples of concrete were considered for the building of the Barbican. These were fixed onto the walls of this thin corridor in order to test how the different concrete samples would weather and age over the years.
Resin – eco resins are non toxic, renewable and solvent free.
There is one eco-resin that is produced from a weed called Vernonia, this weed thrives in poor soil and it does not need much water. These resins are produced by farmers in developing countries like Ethiopia. This plant does not take up many resources is very exciting as a product for the future. Bio – resins will hopefully compete and replace petroleum based chemical resins such as epoxies and polyesters that are harmful to the environment.
 Resin comes in a liquid form that solidifies when they come into contact with a catalyst
 One of the exciting aspects of using resin is that it can be used in a clear form, allowing items to be suspended within it.
Any material that takes the form of liquid that can become solid through chemical reaction or frozen can be used as a moulding material. I remember seeing in The Saachi Gallery on the Thames some years ago a head cast and frozen in blood by a British contemporary visual artist called Marc Quinn (b.1964). This cast was made originally in 1991 with eight pints of his own blood, it is immersed in frozen silicone and he makes a new version of it every five years
Self    By Marc Quinn
I remember seeing this work and thinking it was quite disturbing because of the idea of giving up so much of his own blood, like a sacrificial act.
It also seemed as if an element of himself was in the room, which of course was true. I think it is a powerful sculpture though as I still remember it quite clearly after 20 years after seeing it.
Polyurethane Resins Surrey Office
W.P Notcutt Ltd 01483 223311
Eduardo Paolozzi (1924-2005)
This artist and sculptor had a wide interest in using different media. In 1947 he moved to Paris and was strongly influenced by the Surrealist movement. He loved collage as an art form and collected various different objects to mould from and collated them together making surface textured collections, He carried forward some of those ideas of marks and lines into print. He used bright block colours as well as metallics and monochrome. He also created 3D models, liked to draw and used film as an art form.
When he died some orbituarists made the suggestion that he was highlighting the western world’s wasteful use of materials by the subject matter of his art –  for example bent forks, radio parts and other discarded and broken artefacts.
Information sourced from the link below
Victoria Ferrand Scott  link 18
Image found on Pinterest
Victoria Fernandez Scott is an artist and photographer. This artist can see beyond seemingly ordinary everyday objects. She is inspired by familiar forms – for example a coat hook and by abstracting and simplifying the shape further develops ideas for her sculptures. She applies her extensive knowledge and experience of how a certain moulding material such as Latex or plaster will behave and then allows pressure and gravity to take  the work to its final stage, often testing these chosen materials and taking them to the extreme limit of their capabilities.
Her working practices and developed moulded sculptures will influence some of my work in Project 2 of this assignment.
Rachel Whiteread

Cast of a hot water bottle
Image found on Pinterest 
Research below was sourced from Wikipedia 
 Rachel Whiteread was bought up in London in a working class family, her mother was an artist and father was a geography teacher. She studied at Brighton Polytechnic, Cyprus College of Art and the Slade. Rachel’s subject matter and interests lie in practical objects that are familiar to us and resonate with her – for example everyday practical objects such as milk bottles, light switches and hot water bottles, tables and wardrobes. After creating a few sculptures in her early career with some of these objects she moved on to a new  project to cast the space that her objects would inhabit.
 In 1990 Rachel cast the internal space of a small dwelling from a Victorian living room that was about to be demolished … she called it “ghost”.
This construction built from a Victorian living room cast in sections and assembled on a metal frame. Ghost and other pieces by Rachel were bought by Charles Saatchi for his “Young British Art show” in 1993. Rachel then went on to a much larger project and decided to cast the internal space of a complete house which won her the Turner Prize in 1993. She  collects anything that appeals to her that she could possibly make use of in the future. Many of Rachel’s drawings are on graph paper with ink and built up layers of correction fluid.
Her work focuses on line and form. This artist presents us with the negative space of familiar everyday objects and spaces, giving us a different viewpoint.
Rebecca Fairley    Link 19
Fabric and Matter
Rebecca Fairley initially trained as a nurse before she switched careers as an artist. Rebecca is also a Pilates teacher and has an interest in dance as well as being a researcher and programme leader for Textiles at the OCA. She is particularly interested in concrete as a medium to capture textured surfaces but also to hold materials within and into.
Having discovered this image of her work on her website and on Pinterest I was captivated by the richness and complexity of this work. This sculpture explores colour, surface texture, form, encapsulation and dimension. I would love to see this work in daylight as the sun moves  over it, casting moving shadows and clouds dulling down the shapes and colours and bright sunlight bringing out the colours of this matrix collage. I can see how Rebecca’s work will inspire and influence my experiments in both projects 1 and 2
Susan Benarcik    Link 20
Susan Benarcik actually uses very few moulding and casting techniques but much of her inspiration comes from organic natural forms and uses found materials to create textural wall art installations, layered collage wall hangings and 3D forms.
Her materials are sourced from single use items often produced on an industrial scale, such a corrugated coffee holders, plastic bags, old maps and newsprint.
She feels the material and works out its capabilities and from there forms repeated patterns.
She likes to build and layer often using collage. She weaves, stitches and glues. Her work is delicate and intricate and her colour palette seems to be focused on the neutral spectrum, leaving the colours of the found material in its original state. I am particularly interested in her repeated organic textures such as the image above and will refer back to her work when developing my final samples.
Lei Xue
an installation of cans by Lei Xui 
Image found on Pinterest
Lei Xue was born in China and studied oil painting in Shandong, he continued his studies at a free school in Germany. This artist is interested in taking traditions from the past and making comparisons with the way we behave in today’s society. When I first came across this image I thought they had been moulded but they are (sculpted) vessels that represent modern aluminium drinks cans. These vessels have been hand painted with motifs from the Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644)
The comparison being between a drinks can discarded straight after its contents has been consumed as opposed to a tea bowl being smashed straight after a traditional tea ceremony.
This artist may not fit into this research of moulding …….but I have chosen this artist to add to my research because I find the familiar distortion of the forms exciting and thought provoking
(looking at these hard porcelain forms I imagine them as soft metal being scrunched and distorted)
 So I have chosen this artist as I feel he fits into the category of 3D artitsts finding an object and representing it from an alternate viewpoint by changing its material.
I have a different view point from the artist because in the West when willow pattern was transported here and became popular, we coveted and collected our tea sets, passing them down through generations.

Tutor feedback to assignment two. Mixed Media for Textiles

Tutor report


Student name Penelope day Student number 515242
Course/Module Textiles 1 Mixed media for textiles Assignment number 2


Overall Comments


Penny you have such a positive upbeat approach to your studies it is really great to work with you. You listen calmly to my constructive criticism, think about what i am saying, understand and think positively about what needs to be done next.  You have a very mature and level headed approach to your studies.


I want to stay that i enjoyed looking through your work and appreciate how hard you have worked. You have a good level of skill in your handling of textiles. It looks like you have enjoyed this assignment.


Unfortunately you didn’t quite understand what is being asked of you in this assignment and over complicated your sample making. ( see below and as discussed)


Assignment feedback


So in our discussion today we talked mainly about how best to answer the assignment brief and what is being asked of you. These assignments are building different skills that all eventually combine in your textiles studies. Here you are asked to research and understand  artists/ designers who work with joining and wrapping. From looking at their work you can get ideas about how to approach your own joining and wrapping. The assignment is asking you to work with materials and through experimentation and repetition see how you can join and wrap in a variety of exciting and interesting ways. It is asking for a very honest approach to materials and processes. We are not trying to depict anything in particular. We are just feeling what the materials do in our hands and how they work together (or even how they don’t work together). Remember this assignment is as much about doing things that work as those that don’t . Analyse why things don’t work, maybe a yarn is too heavy so a finer one needs to be selected . Maybe there is not enough stick to tape two materials together so a thicker piece is needed or the tape needs to be overlapped. It is these simple trials and observations that we need to be working on. As you progress through the assignment your samples might become more sophisticated/ complicated but we are still fundamentally looking at the materials and processes.


Unfortunately your theme became too strong in this assignment and you tried to make samples based around the images. You were thinking less about the materials and process and more about what the final piece looked like. We have discussed this and you noted this yourself.

From the very start of this second assignment I came up with an idea to base all of my work around a theme ( plants and insects). I agree the brief had not suggested I should introduce a theme. I incorrectly thought that by doing so it would provide a useful framework to work within.
In response to another student’s question/comment ( I have adviced another student to read and fully understand what’s being asked of us before commencing the work. If only I listened to my own advice.

Positively, in this assignment you have shown that if you are asked to work with a theme you are able to translate research into textile samples in an interesting and unique way. If you are working with a theme though do think about using fewer ideas/ images and going into more depth. So looking at just butterflies and moths and maybe what they eat/ land on would have been enough. Their bodies have a 3d form, they have a combination of curved and straight edges, also put against the leaves and twigs this would have given you more curves and edges. You really had too many ideas for this short assignment , taking each idea and creating a different sample. Instead think about taking one idea and doing iterations of it, take one idea and create 2-5 samples, repeating processes, refining, changing until you come up with the best solution.

I accept that I complicated my work with themes and I wrote far too much. I should have focussed on experimenting with materials and processes and reporting clearly on what worked and what didn’t – and explained why.
I now realise that even when I am asked to work to a theme in the future I will focus on fewer ideas, and simplify my explanations.

You presented your work beautifully and it was easy for me to look through all your samples.


The pages in your sketchbook were full of ideas including some skilled sample making. You have played around more with placement and scale in these samples. Your drawings of your samples especially the wrappings were very sensitive.


The wrapping part of the assignment worked better than the joining . I think you were more abstract here and did not trying so hard to depict what you had in a photograph. The 3d samples you sent were very beautiful to look at and handle.

I agree that the wrapping sampling worked better because, as Jenny says, they are more abstract in form. To retain focus on technique, I have now removed references to themes from my blog.

I can see you have worked with a sketchbook in a looser way. Did this help you ?

I found that by working with an ideas / mind mapping / sketchbook dedicated to the assignment helped with formulating ideas. I have had a sketchbook in the past but this workbook idea was very useful.


Pointers for the next assignment


You are still working with great enthusiasm Penny and producing some exciting skilled work. Keep going !!


What contemporary artists/ designers are you interested in? It would be good to start to look at this as it will help you to develop your own personal voice in regards to who you are as an artist/ designer.

I will make a big effort to hunt out more contemporary artists that are relevant to the coursework.

Make sure you are really answering the assignment brief.

I will go back to reading the brief carefully before commencing any practical work and hopefully keep in track.


You are going to look at how you can select out the best of the joining samples and add some new simple ones.

I have edited LOADS from the blog, editing anything with a reference of a theme. There may be one or two hints in the text of a theme because I felt they were pertinent to the sampling that was still workable and valid. I have created ten new samples and reworked three or four existing ones.
This was a valuable lesson learnt… not one I want to necessarily repeat in my future work.

Tutor name Jenny Udale
Date 18th sept 2018
Next assignment due 10th dec  2018